CORONO VIRUS-THE WORLD WIDE DIESEAS

A novel infectious disease COVID-19 which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome 
coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is recognized as a pandemic by the World Health 
Organization (WHO). This outbreak was first recognized in Wuhan, China in December 2019 
and then spread very fast worldwide. More than 2,171,303 cases of COVID-19 have been reported 
in over 170 countries and territories, which leads to more than 144,704 deaths and 546,272
recoveries reported on 16 April 2020. The Common symptoms of COVID-19 infection include 
fever, cough, and shortness of breath and Complications may include pneumonia and acute 
respiratory distress syndrome. At the initial stage, it spread similar to influenza via respiratory 
droplets from coughing or sneezing. It is considered most contagious when people are 
symptomatic, although the spread is possible even before symptoms appear. Currently, there is 
no vaccine and antiviral drugs are available to treat this deadly disease. WHO has recommended 
certain preventive measures to prevent this dangerous disease include hand washing, covering 
the mouth when coughing, maintaining distance from other people and monitoring and self-
isolation for fourteen days for people who suspect they are infected.
The pandemic has led to global socioeconomic disruption due to the postponement or 
cancellation of sport and cultural events globally and creates widespread fear of supply shortages 
across various sectors including pharmaceuticals, electronics and food. Misinformation and 
conspiracy theories about the virus floated on social media create a negative effect includes
xenophobia and racism, and panic buying of various products such as canned beans and soups, 
pasta, toilet paper, and bottled water. Some commentators have called the pandemic the biggest 
global event si

corono virus.structure of corono virus


Epidemiology
Health authorities in Wuhan, China reported a number of pneumonia-like cases on 31 December
2019 and a detailed investigation was launched in January 2020. They observed a common link
among the infected peoples that they have visited Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, which
also sold live animals and thought that this virus may have a zoonotic origin. COVID-19 is
closely related to bat coronaviruses, pangolin coronaviruses and SARS-CoV and they believed
the virus may have originated in horseshoe bats.
The latest study published on 17 March 2020 in Nature Medicine reported that an analysis of
public genome sequence data from SARS-CoV-2 and related viruses found no evidence that the
virus was made in a laboratory or otherwise engineered. Dr. Kristian Andersen, an associate
professor of immunology and microbiology at Scripps Research claimed that by comparing the
available genome sequence data for known coronavirus strains, we can firmly determine that
SARS-CoV-2 originated through natural processes. They observed that the RBD portion of the
SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins had evolved to effectively target a molecular feature on the outside
of human cells called ACE2, a receptor involved in regulating blood pressure. The SARS-CoV-2
spike protein was so effective at binding the human cells that the scientists concluded it was the
result of natural selection and not the product of genetic engineering.

Signs and symptoms:

symptoms.corona symptoms.symptoms of corona virus


Transmission
:
The primary mode of transmission is via respiratory droplets that people exhale, for example
when coughing or sneezing. Droplets stay viable and contagious on metal, cardboard, glass or
plastic surface and stay suspended in the air for only a short time at 65% relative humidity (RH)
and 21-23°C. Based on the earlier research on other strain of coronavirus, it is known that
application of 62–71% ethanol, 50–100% isopropanol, 0.1% sodium hypochlorite,
0.5% hydrogen peroxide are efficient biocidal agents to disinfect surfaces contaminated with
SARS-CoV-2 strain.


Diagnosis:
Diagnosis for the respiratory illness coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the
associated SARS-CoV-2 virus is possible with two main methods: molecular recognition
and serology testing. Molecular methods involve the detection of the genomic sequence of
COVID-19 and this is achieved by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
(RT-PCR) for the amplification of viral genome for appropriate sequencing to confirm viral
infection. Serology testing involves ELISA antibody test kits to detect the presence of antibodies
in the blood samples of infected persons which are produced by the host immune system against
the virus.
Prevention:
The basic requirement to stop the transmission of this infectious disease includes personal
hygiene, coughing/sneezing into a tissue and putting the tissue directly into a dustbin, hand
washing, avoiding touching the eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands, self-isolation, social
distancing and personal isolation. Wearing surgical masks are mandatory for the infected peoples
while going outside to prevent the spread to others. Health organizations are advised to keep self-
quarantine for the people who doubt their COVID-19 infection. Most of the contraries put a
restriction or advised against all non-essential travel to and from countries and areas affected by
the outbreak. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi requested peoples of India to excise a 12 hrs
Janta curfew 22 march for brake the chain of COVID-19 infection and later the lockdown is extended 3 may by keeping themselves in the houses for
the same.